National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh is the oldest art gallery in Scotland. Gallery building, standing on an artificial hill in the center of Mound City, was designed by the famous Scottish architect William Henry Playfair and opened to the public in 1859. The gallery shows a rich collection of European painting and sculpture, which covers a considerable period from the Renaissance to Post-Impressionism era, and includes paintings by Vermeer, Rubens, Titian, Tintoretto, Van Dyck, El Greco, Rembrandt, Watteau, Gainsborough, Monet, Gauguin, Pissarro, Cézanne, Scotsman William Aikman and other great artists. Permanent collection of the National Galleries of Scotland has about twenty thousand different paintings, prints, drawings and watercolors, among which also includes the most rare paintings of the Dutch. The gallery also has a research library, which collected fifty thousand books, magazines and slides from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century. Here are stored archival materials pertaining to the history of the gallery and its collections and exhibitions. Exhibits of the National Gallery of Scotland is constantly updated by private collectors, as well as personal gifts of the Royal Court and Queen of Great Britain itself directly. One of the most famous masterpieces of the gallery is the altarpiece of the Trinity, made by Hugo van der Gus collection of the Queen.
Scott Monument - one of the most famous attractions of Edinburgh. It was erected in 1846 in the Gothic style in memory of the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott. After his death in 1832, was a competition for the design of the monument. This possibility has received forty-five joiner, draftsman, architect -taught George Meikle Kemp. Unfortunately, the architect was not able to see the finished monument since drowned in the Union Canal in March 1844. The monument is made of sandstone Binnie, produced from the late eighteenth century in West Lothian. A feature of this sandstone is the content of shale oil, which attracts dust and stone surface soot from the atmosphere. The monument is decorated with sculptures and sixty four, most of whom are heroes of Scott. In the center of the monument is a sculpture of the writer of white Carrara marble by the sculptor John Steele. It depicts a seated Sir Walter Scott, a vacationer from writing one of his works, with a book and quill pen in hand, and next to him his dog - Maida. Scott Monument has several viewing platforms that provides stunning views of the center of Edinburgh and its outlying areas. On the first level there is an exhibition of Walter Scott and his monument. The highest platform you can get, breaking 287 degrees and, if desired, to obtain a certificate of climbing to the top.
Edinburgh Castle is the most famous castle in Scotland, as well as the main and most visited attraction in Edinburgh. For a long time it was the seat of the Scottish kings. This is where the most important decisions that influenced the course of history of Scotland. The castle is located on top of the Castle rock, which was once an active volcano. To him is the main street of old Edinburgh - Royal Mile, at the other end of which is located Palace of Holyroodhouse. The first building on the cliff top was built in the early Middle Ages, then repeatedly rebuilt. Most large-scale restructuring was carried out in the seventeenth century. Dating from the eighteenth century, it was used mainly as a prison. And during the Second World War there even held captured German pilots. Later transferred to the management structure of the Ministry of palaces and castles in Scotland and is now open to the public, attracting tens of thousands of tourists annually. Proud castle is one of the oldest buildings in Scotland - St Margaret's Chapel, named after Margaret of Scotland and built in the early twelfth century by her son, King David. Within the medieval walls of the castle is a treasure trove, which houses ancient weapons, ornaments, and other historical treasures. The most important of them - the gold crown of Scotland and the Stone of Destiny, on which Scottish rulers sat during their coronation, hoping that the stone will endow them with wisdom and insight needed to run the country. Mills on the battery - mounted gun mount, from which daily, except Sundays, Good Friday and Christmas Day, at exactly one o'clock the shot.
Grassmarket - a historic area in central Edinburgh, named after the old market square. It belongs to the Old Town, which was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. Dating from the fourteenth century, the square was a market in which trading horses and cattle. In addition, there was carried out public executions. Earlier Grassmarket was one of the poorest areas of Edinburgh, where there is a large amount of accommodation for the homeless. However, since the late twentieth century, property prices began to grow thanks to its central location the area at the foot of Edinburgh Castle. He is now considered one of the busiest areas of the Scottish capital. There are a large number of pubs, restaurants, nightclubs, shops, as well as two large hotel. Most of the buildings in the square, dates from the beginning of the nineteenth century, when the old town was rebuilt after a fire in 1824. During the construction of some buildings as building materials sometimes used stone left over from the former buildings. The oldest of the surviving buildings surrounding the Grassmarket, dated 1616 year. In addition, the Grassmarket areas preserved former city walls. In 2010, the Grassmarket was rebuilt, becoming more comfortable for pedestrians. Sidewalks were expanded and created a platform for a variety of activities. Today the area is a favorite place for young people and in particular students.
National Museum of Scotland consists of two museums - the Royal Museum, built in 1861 in Victorian style and a more modern, - the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, which was built in 1998. These two museums were merged in April 2008. The modern part of the Museum of Scotland allows you to see the country's history from the first settlements on Scottish territory and far. Royal Museum tells the history of the world. In showrooms can see objects geology, natural history, archeology, science, technology and art. A large number of rooms devoted to ancient Egypt. One of the main exhibits of the museum - a collection of natural history with stuffed animals, skeletons of dinosaurs and many marine creatures, suspended from the ceiling of the giant plasma screens showing films about wildlife. One of the most notable and interesting exhibits is the effigy of Dolly - the first successful clone of an animal cell. One of the exhibition halls especially delight fans of Elton John, where you can familiarize yourself with the most extravagant costumes.
Museum of Childhood founded in 1955, a passionate collector of toys and part-time senior official Edinburgh Patrick Murray. Such a museum dedicated to the history of childhood, there was not only in Edinburgh, but throughout the world. The museum toys from all over the world from the eighteenth century to the present day : dolls, teddy bears, railways, tricycles and more. And sliders, textbooks and even ointment for bruises. Visitors can learn how to dress was made, to teach and educate children in different times and ages. The first floor of the museum dedicated to children up to three years. On show cases are not only all kinds of toys, but things take care of babies : cradle, nipples, highchairs and even hygiene items - boxes with creams and powder. Multiple exposures are toys for boys - wooden and tin soldiers, painted in the form of the British Army, railways, planes and cars. Private showcase devoted puppets - puppets. One of the exhibits of the museum tells the story of its founder - the man who gave the opportunity for any adult to be in the child's dream, surrounded by dolls and toy soldiers. The museum also has a shop selling great toys and board games for kids of all ages.
Scottish Parliament building - this unusual architectural structure and an important landmark of the country. The first parliament building in Scotland - Parliament Hall was built in the seventeenth century by order of King Charles the First next to the Cathedral of St. Giles. Then Scotland was an independent state. In 1707, after the union of England and Scotland in a single kingdom - Great Britain, Parliament ceased to exist. English and Scottish parliaments were loose, instead, the British Parliament was established, and for the next three hundred years of management conducted Scotland from London. Only in 1999, the Scottish Parliament has been restored, after a majority of voters in a referendum in favor of his support. At a meeting of the new parliament was decided to build a new parliament building. Place of construction was chosen the historic center of Edinburgh, close to Holyrood Palace. The author of the project was a Catalan architect Enrique Miralles. The original complex of modern buildings should symbolize, according to his ideas, unity of the Scottish people, its culture and the city of Edinburgh. The building project was subjected to constant criticism from the start of construction. However, many experts and critics consider this project an architectural masterpiece, noting that although he stands out among the old buildings, yet does not contradict either the surrounding landscape, or general architectural appearance of the area. In the Scottish Parliament building excursions, book a ticket that can be online institution. Visitors are also allowed with prior reservation at the parliamentary session. The building of the Scottish Parliament has a cafe and a shop.
Palace of Holyroodhouse - is the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland. The name comes from the Anglo- Scottish distorted "Hali ruid", which means " Holy Cross." On-site complex of buildings of the palace was originally Abbey "Holy Cross", founded in 1128 by King David of Scotland first. According to legend, in 1127 the king while hunting deer with a radiant noticed between the horns of a cross. In honor of the King of the Holy Cross and founded the abbey. It held meetings of the nobility, the coronation and the royal wedding. Already in the late fifteenth century, there were some royal apartments, and in the early sixteenth century King James builds Fourth Renaissance palace adjacent to the abbey. Royal residence moved from Edinburgh Castle to the Palace. In the seventeenth century in the palace are the big building and restoration work, but after the merger in 1707 in England and Scotland united kingdom - Great Britain, the royal residence moved to London. The palace is in decline, the abbey destroyed. Only in 1822, King George the Fourth revives the tradition of visits Holyroodhouse. Palace restored, re- refined and decorated. In the early twentieth century to the visit of George V in the palace appears electricity and central heating. Since 1920, Holyrood Palace became the official residence of the British monarch in Scotland. Queen of Great Britain stops here during her official visits. Here the Queen appoints the First Minister of Scotland and holds royal receptions. In his spare persons visiting royals time, the palace is open to visitors. At Queen Gallery exhibitions of treasures from royal collections. In the Great Gallery, connecting the former apartments of the King and Queen, you can admire a huge collection of portraits of Scottish kings, numbering 110 paintings. Definitely worth a visit extant chambers Mary Stuart - Queen of Scots, who lived in the sixteenth century of Holyroodhouse. Here daggers conspirators stabbed her secretary, Italian Riccio. At the murder scene left an indelible bloodstain that today marked a special sign. For the royal palace of Holyroodhouse and Holyrood Park is located or, as it is called, the royal park landscape with volcanic nature, hills and lakes, as well as the ruins of the chapel of St. Anthony. In the center of the park stands the impressive hill - " Arthur's Seat ", from which, especially in good weather, excellent views of the entire city.
Museum "Our Dynamic Earth" was founded in 1999 and tells the history of our planet. There are a lot of interactive exhibits, each devoted to a specific topic, such as dinosaurs, the ice age, the underwater world, the tropical forests, the structure of the Earth, and lots more. With the help of computer technology, huge screens and special effects in the museum recreated various natural phenomena. In "The Unquiet Earth Room" can experience a formidable power and complexity of volcanoes, earthquakes, oceans, glaciers and tropical forests.
Calton Hill is the most popular lookout in Edinburgh, which offers wonderful views of the city. In addition, on a hill, there are historical monuments and buildings. The main tower is the dominant hill Nelson, shaped like a telescope. With its lookouts can also enjoy the city. Beside her is set National Monument in memory of the soldiers who died in battles with Napoleon, who gave Edinburgh the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its resemblance to the famous Parthenon in Athens. Lack of funds has meant that the monument was never finished, but residents of the city loved him for who he is, and on completion of all the projects and the completion of the monument has consistently met disapprobation and were rejected. Can be seen to the left of the Obelisk of victims of political repression, buildings Urban Observatory and philosopher Dugald Stewart monument, similar to the gazebo in the antique style. And at the foot of the hill is the palace of Holyroodhouse - the residence of British monarchs. Officially, the hill was included in the city of Edinburgh in 1859. Once there was a prison and place of execution, then place on prison building has been built Scottish Government - St Andrews House. Broad avenues surrounding the hill on three sides, were designed by the famous Scottish architect William Henry Playfair. There are very beautiful house in which they lived and the descendants of the French kings, artists and other famous and rich. Playfair is also the author of one of the most famous monuments on the Hill Calton Hill - National Monument of Scotland.