Republic Square - one of the most outstanding achievements of urban planning after the unification of Italy. In 1871, Rome suffered some transformations and improvements to follow in the footsteps of other European capitals, and get a modern look. At that time, the area was designed in honor of the young republic. Originally the area was called Exedra. This name is still upotrebimo locals. Republic Square is located in the heart of Rome, in the immediate vicinity of the famous ancient Baths of Diocletian (the ruins of the ancient Roman baths). She is known for magnificent Naiad fountain, located in the center and four depicting naked nymphs. It was built in 1901 by sculptor Mario Rutelli, the great-grandfather of the future at the time the mayor of Rome, Francesco Rutelli. Also from the area dates back to Via Nazionale - one of the main streets of the city, laid in 1887 as the first transport axis. Street symbolizes the transition from the old to the new Rome..
On the front is an area of the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, dedicated to the Holy Virgin, the angels and martyrs, and located on the site of the ruins of the ancient Baths of Diocletian. It is assumed that the designer of the temple was Michelangelo, he also belongs idea for a spacious yard adjoining the church of the monastery. It was completed in 1566, after the death of Michelangelo.. The church was rebuilt several times. The facade of the church, unfinished at the beginning of the eighteenth century, was dismantled in the early twentieth century, and today is part of the facade caldarium (room for hot tubs). In one of the renovations was also raised by two meters floor of the church to protect it from flooding by groundwater.. Inside the church is a huge covered area shaped like a Greek cross equilateral. In seventeen hundred in her second year there were large sundial. According to this watch over a hundred years time we check for the whole of Rome, until in 1846 have not entered the cannon shot at noon from the tower of the Castle of the Holy Angel.. The interior of the church is decorated with antique columns, sculptures and paintings that are mostly paintings by French masters of the seventeenth-eighteenth centuries. The church is the tomb of Salvator Rosa, Italian painter and poet seventeenth century, and the architect Carlo Maratta, who worked on the reconstruction of the church..
The church of Santa Maria Maggiore - is among the four major basilicas of Rome. Since its foundation is an interesting legend associated. One of the summer nights, five hundred and fifty second year of the First Pope Liberia and the rich to Roman Giovanni Patrizio Madonna appeared in a dream and ordered him to build on the place where the next day the snow falls, the church. The next morning, three hundred and fifty fifth August of the second year, on the Esquiline, where now stands the basilica, there was snow. They say that right before this snow line first plan of the church. After that, it built the first version, called the "Church of Our Lady of the Snow". It was replaced basilica built in the forties of the fifth century by Pope Sixtus the Third. Many dad, trying to make this a very revered Roman church more beautiful finish building and adorned her. At the entrance to the basilica on the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore, is a column, which is crowned with the figure of Mary.. Bell tower of the church, dating from the one thousand three hundred and seventy seventh year - the highest in Rome. Her height - 75 meters. Exceptional interest are the mosaics on the church. In the central nave are mosaics of the fifth century, depicting scenes from the Old Testament. Plots mosaics triumphal arch - the Annunciation, the birth of Christ and worship him also dating from the fifth century. Of great interest are three chapels. First - The Sistine Chapel was built by order of Pope Sixtus the Fifth Domenico Fontana. Here are buried Sixtus the Fifth and Pius the Fifth. Second - Paolinskaya Chapel, also known as the Borghese Chapel, with the See of the Mother of God. In the chapel are buried Paul Clement Eighth and Fifth. In this chapel is the most revered in Rome image of the Virgin Mary vizantyiskogo origin. The third chapel - Sforza Chapel, was built, probably designed by Michelangelo..
Venice Area - one of the most beautiful squares in Rome, named after the eponymous palace in Venice. It is located at the foot of the Capitol and close to the Roman Forum.. In the fifteenth century Venetian Cardinal Pietro Barbo (later Pope Paul II) built a palace here, where after 1567 housed the embassy of the Venetian Republic. During the reign of Mussolini's Palace was the residence of his. Today it houses the Museum, which houses a collection of works of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.. In sixteen hundred and sixtieth year was built another palace, originally called Mishyatelli palace, and later, when it housed the French emperor's mother Maria Letizia Ramolino, renamed the Palace of Bonaparte.. Its current form area acquired in 1885, after it was built a monument to Victor Emmanuel the Second.. There is also the altar of the homeland, or the altar, and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and the eternal flame burns memory..
The Roman Forum - this is one of the main attractions of Rome. It arose in the days of the first kings of Rome, around the seventh century BC. The Forum held public meetings, meetings of the Senate and the election of magistrates, as well as religious ceremonies and litigation.. The Forum is the shopping stalls, shops, temples, public speaking stands, the building of the Senate and the Roman Court. The forum was also adorned with monuments that were dedicated to the victories of the Roman arms.. The first building, which is evident at the entrance to the Roman Forum, and - this is the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda, which in ancient times was the Temple of Antoninus Pius and Faustina. This temple was built a hundred and forty-first year, and with the advent of Christianity, it was converted into a Christian church. Nearby are the remains of the Basilica Emilia, the construction of which dates back to the seventy-ninth сто BC. Very close to the heart of ancient Rome, - the building of the Curia, which is meeting the Roman Senate.. Directly in front of the Curia is another relic of Rome - the black stone Lapis Niger, which according to legend is the place where he was buried the first king of Rome - Romulus.. Behind the towering arch of Septimius Severus, one of the three ancient triumphal arches that have come down to us in good condition. The arch was built to commemorate the victory of the emperor in the Parthian war in two third year.. To the left of the arch of Septimius Severus is the foundation of the speaker's podium - the so-called Rostra, which was decorated with noses of enemy ships captured by the Romans in the Latin War. Behind the Rostra can see eight columns that are left of the church of Rome's most revered god Saturn.. Nearby is Tabularium or the State Archive of Rome, and before it actually is the main area of the Roman Forum. Nearby is the Triumphal Column Emperor Phocas, erected in six eighth year in honor of the Byzantine emperor has. Fock receive this honor, for having presented the pantheon of the Christian Church. This is the last column of the monument, which was set at the Rome Forum.
Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine - the largest building ever built in the Roman Forum. She was laid down in the three-eighth year of Emperor Maxentius, and completed by his successor - Constantine in the three year dvennadtsatom. It housed the prefecture, which since has become a single body all over the city administration. Even by the standards of a Roman building of the Basilica was grandly. The area of the nave exceed four thousand square meters, and the height of the arches was 39 meters. Architectural model for building served as the Baths of Caracalla and Diocletian.. Inside the walls of the basilica were decorated with marble slabs, the floor is covered with colored marble. In the western apse of the basilica was a statue of the Emperor Maxentius, who after his death was replaced by a giant statue of Emperor Constantine in marble and bronze. Foot length of two meters and other parts of the body that dvennadtsatimetrovoy seated statue, located in Capitoline Museum in Rome..
Colosseum or Flavian Amphitheater - the most famous and one of the great buildings of the ancient world that have survived to our time. Its construction began in the seventy-second year of the AD under the emperor Vespasian. The name "Flavian Amphitheatre" this magnificent stadium was named after the ancient three representatives of the Flavian dynasty, participating in its construction. At the beginning of its history, the Coliseum has served the citizens principal place of entertainment events. There were gladiatorial fights were held water battle, baiting wild animals. When Emperor Macrinus two hundred seventeenth year of the Colosseum was badly damaged by fire, but was restored by decree of Alexander Severus. In the four hundred fifth year of the Emperor Honorius banned organize gladiatorial combat in the Colosseum, which is not consistent with the principles of non-violence dominant at the time of the Christian religion in the empire. Later, having survived the barbarian invasions, the Coliseum started to fall into disrepair.. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries amphitheater served as a fortress for the noble Roman families. The last of these (Annibaldi) had to give way to the Colosseum Emperor Henry the seventh, who gave it to the Roman senate and people of. For a time in the Coliseum were trying to revive the tradition of past amusements, arranging for its arena from time to time bullfights. In 1349, a powerful earthquake in Rome, the Colosseum was the cause of the collapse, in particular, the southern part. After that, it began to look as a source of obtaining a building material, and not just fallen off, but the purpose of the broken stones he began to go to the new facilities. Thus, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Pope Paul the second took from him the material for the construction of the so-called Venetian palace, Cardinal Riario - Palace Office, Paul third - Palazzo Farnese. Another two popes - Pope Sixtus the fifth and ninth Clement tried to establish in the premises Coliseum production of cloth and nitrate, respectively.. Only Pope Benedict fourteenth showed more respect for the ancient monument. In honor of those killed in the arena of many Christian martyrs, he ordered to make a Coliseum church altars of which remained in the amphitheater until 1874. All other supported Pope Benedict XIV fine tradition of taking care of the Coliseum.. Since then, centuries have passed. Period of forgetting the Coliseum had 15 centuries, the restoration took 8 years. Nineteenth-July, two thousand new Flavian Amphitheatre revealed himself admiring gaze of the public. Today, the scene of his spectacular performances go again, but not gladiator fights and colorful theatrical shows. Seventh of July two thousand and seven Coliseum is recognized as one of the Seven New Wonders of the World..
Circus Maximus was the largest hippodrome in Rome, which could at the same time compete to twelve chariots.. In the old days the Circus played a very important role in the cultural life of the city. It was built, according to the scientists, at the time of Lucius Tarquinius in the six hundredth year of BC. That's when it started to carry out the construction of equestrian events. When Caesar's Circus Maximus extended to a length of six hundred meters, as a result of which he became accommodate nearly 500,000 spectators seated and standing. With each new emperor of the Circus Maximus became more impressive and solid, it was constantly reinforced and rebuilt. Emperor Augustus established the Egyptian column is left over after the Plaza del Popolo. Domitian built a road from the arena to his own palace. Traian increased the number of seats and rubbed the imperial box. However, all this construction work at times led to the unfortunate result. One or the other platform brings down, unable to bear the weight spectators, resulting in a large number of people perished.. In the decline of the construction was coming along with the Roman Empire, when it was captured barbarians. First, stop spending jumps. Then the Circus turned into a playground battles between warring with each other clans. And later, local residents began to take it apart to use the material for their own buildings. Nevertheless, the territory of the circus never fully built up, and still hosts public events here.
Vatican City - the smallest country in the world, located on the territory of Rome.. This city-state founded as a result of the Lateran Agreement signed on the eleventh day of February twenty-ninth day of the year between the Holy See and the government of Mussolini.. Almost the entire population of the Vatican - the subjects of the Holy See, which are the servants of the Catholic Church. On 31 December 2005, there were 557 subjects of the Holy See.. The main source of income for the Vatican - especially donations of Catholics around the world. As in neighboring European countries, the currency of the Vatican - Euro. However, the government minted coins with their own local symbols, so that the Vatican coins - rare in the euro zone.. The Vatican is the residence of the Pope, and the world-famous masterpieces of architecture - St. Peter's Basilica, the Vatican Museums, including the Sistine Chapel, Chapel of Pope Nicholas the Fifth, St. Peter's Square, the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore and the famous Vatican Library.. The central and most prominent building Vatican - St. Peter's Basilica. It is the largest historic Christian church in the world, one of the four patriarchal basilicas of Rome and the ceremonial center of the Roman Catholic Church. This is probably the most famous of the churches of the world. The first basilica on this site was built three hundred and twenty-sixth year, in the reign of the first Christian emperor Constantine. It has always been that it was built on the site of the tomb of the Apostle Peter.. In 1506, Pope Julius II laid the foundation stone of the new church, completed only after a hundred years, with the participation of artists such as Bramante, Michelangelo, Raphael, Bernini.. St. Peter's Basilica - the largest in the history of Christianity, and its dome - the largest in Europe. There are eleven forty five chapels and altars. Capacity of the cathedral about sixty thousand people.. In 1667, before the cathedral was defeated St. Peter's Square - one of the most outstanding works of the world of urban planning practice..
Piazza del Popolo - one of the most famous squares of Rome. It is easily identified by two symmetrically constructed almost identical churches and huge obelisk in the middle.. Piazza del Popolo originated during the reign of Pope Sixtus the Fifth in the sixteenth century. In its current form, size del Popolo broke in 1822, the architect Giuseppe Valadier. He joined Napoleon's staircase area with a slope of the Pincio hill, which extends the gardens of Villa Borghese.. In the northern part of the square is the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. According to legend, it was on the site of the present area was buried Roman Emperor Nero. The Romans believed that the tomb of the late emperor was got evil spirits, and the specter of bloody tyrant nights disturbed the surrounding residents. Pope Paschal II therefore ordered that the ashes of Nero in the river, and on the site of the tomb to build a church in honor of the Holy Virgin. So in 1099 there appeared the church of Santa Maria del Popolo.. In the middle of the square stands the Egyptian obelisk, the inscriptions on which praise the deeds of the pharaoh Ramses II. This obelisk was moved from Heliopolis to Rome at the whim of Octavian Augustus in the tenth year of BC. For centuries, he stood in the Circus Maximus, and to the north gate of Rome was postponed at the direction of Pope Sixtus the Fifth in 1589. In addition to the obelisk, the area is decorated with three fountains.. Historically, the area del Popolo was a place of public executions. Nowadays del Popolo square and stretched over her Pincio Gardens - one of the favorite places of Romans and tourists.
On the right you can see the remains of the mausoleum of August. It was built by the first emperor of Rome, Octavian Augustus in the twenty-eighth year of BC.. Having the shape of a perfect circle Mausoleum once had a height of 44 meters, was lined with cypress trees and crown of Emperor Augustus. Here were buried the Emperor himself, his wife Livia, Octavia sister, nephew of Marseille, as well as the emperors Tiberius and Claudius Nerve. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the mausoleum was in decline, and in the eighth century AD, was sacked. In the Middle Ages, the building was converted into a fortress, which later was destroyed. In 1926, archaeological excavations have been carried out, and the remains of buildings restored..
Trevi Fountain - the most famous and largest fountain in Rome height 25.9 meters and a width of 19.8 meters.. This Baroque fountain was built in 1762 by architect Nicola Salvi on sketches by Bernini. The Trevi Fountain is a grand theatrical scenery. In the center of the fountain - the figure of the god Neptune in a chariot-shell drawn by sea horses. Neptune surrounded by allegorical statues of the storm, calm, health, abundance, and the four seasons. Along the edges of the group - figures of Tritons, indicate the path between the rocks. The Trevi Fountain is adjacent to the facade of the palace Poly, on the second floor which in the thirties of the nineteenth century lived Russian Princess Zinaida Volkonskaia. The princess was a known patron and secular beauty, maintaining friendly relations with Pushkin Viazemsky, Gogol. The princess died in Rome, her ashes rest here, in the area of Trevi - located in front of the Trevi Fountain, the Church of Santi Vincenzo-e-Anastasio.. There is a belief that the person who threw a coin into the fountain, will arrive in Rome again. Two coins - you will make love in Rome. Three - guaranteed marriage. Four coins - wealth. Five coins - separation. The amount of money each year are caught utilities, up to seven hundred thousand euros..
Piazza Barberini was created in the sixteenth century, and most of the surrounding buildings have since been substantially rebuilt. The area is primarily known for being on it fountains - Fountain Triton Fountain and the Bees. Both fountains were designed and built fountains master Gian Lorenzo Bernini.. Another attraction of the area - the Barberini Palace - residence of the family of famous Roman patrons of the seventeenth century. Today, the palace housed the complete masterpieces of the National Gallery of Ancient Art.