The railway station of Santa Maria Novella - is the main railway station of Florence and one of the most important stations in Italy , serving about 60 million passengers a year.. On regional trains departing from the station , you can get to Rome , Venice, Naples and other cities in Italy. Near the railway station is the main bus station, which, in particular , are buses to the airport of Florence. The railway station of Santa Maria Novella is close to many historical and cultural attractions. It is a ten minute walk from Florence Cathedral and in fifteen minutes - from the Piazza della Signoria and the Uffizi Gallery - one of the oldest and most famous art museums in the world.
Church of Santa Maria Novella was designed and built by Dominican monks Sisto da Firenze and yes Campi Ristori in place of the old sanctuary of the tenth century Santa Maria actually Wine. Construction began in 1246. Fully work on the construction of the church ended in the second half of the fourteenth century. The current facade of the church , decorated with white and green marble , was the result of alterations undertaken by Leon Battista Alberti in the period from 1456 by 1470. Marble facade of the church of the same name is on the square - Piazza Santa Maria Novella - one of the largest and most beautiful in the historic center of Florence. The church houses many works of art of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries.. Of particular interest is the chapel of the noble Florentine families , who ordered the most famous painting of the artists of his time.. One of the main values of the church - " The Crucifixion " by Giotto, attributable to the early period of his work, tentatively by the end of the thirteenth century. In this same church, painted the famous " Trinity" by Masaccio ..
Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore - the main attraction of Florence , situated on the Piazza del Duomo. The most famous of Florence Cathedral was laid in 1296 on the site of the ancient temple of Santa Reparata , founded in the fifth century and considerably deteriorated by the time. Construction majestic building lasted nearly six centuries , although the cathedral was consecrated still the unfinished façade in 1469. Exterior decoration of the temple ended only in 1887 , when Florence was capital of Italy. In the construction of the Cathedral attended by the best architects of his time : Giotto, Arnolfo di Cambio , Andrea Pisano. On the decoration of the interior is also bothered a lot of famous artists and sculptors, among whom was the Michelangelo. With dimensions of 153 meters long and 90 meters wide, the Florence Cathedral was once the largest in Europe. Today, Santa Maria del Fiore is the fourth largest cathedral of the world , second only to St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican, St. Paul's Cathedral in London and the Duomo of Milan. Santa Maria del Fiore, known not only for its huge size, but also original facade with a lot of statues, as well as its history. It adopted the laws and decrees by the authorities of Florence, Savonarola preached here. Within these walls, was killed Giuliano, - the brother of Lorenzo the Magnificent of the famous Medici clan , for many years to refuel Florence.. World-famous cathedral brought his dome, designed by the renowned Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi. Until recently, the dome was considered the largest in the world. Its height is 42 meters , weight - about 40,000 tons, and the bricks in its construction - more than 4 million. The interior of the cathedral stand out unusual hours by Uccello in 1443 and reaching the present day. The arrow of the watch is moving against the normal direction. In the Cathedral you can also see the bronze reliquary of Lorenzo Ghiberti , in which the relics of the first bishop of Florence - canonized Zenobia. In the Cathedral there is a museum that holds two priceless paintings - " Pieta " by Michelangelo , as well as "Mary Magdalene " by Donatello. One of the most notable features of the church tower is decorated with sixteen statues of the patriarchs and prophets , and the bas-reliefs depicting the creation of men and women and the planet. On the upper level of the tower , which can be lifted, breaking the 414 steps, offers the most spectacular panoramic views of Florence and the best angle for viewing the red dome.
Baptistery of San Giovanni - the oldest building in Piazza Duomo , mentioned in the chronicles of the ninth century. It was built in honor of John the Baptist, the patron saint of Florence and for more than a thousand years is the spiritual center of Florence. The most famous attraction is its gate Baptistery. The oldest of them - the south gate by Andrea Pisano. They contain 28 panels with bas-reliefs depicting the life of St. John the Baptist and the main virtues. The other two gates created by Lorenzo Ghiberti. North Gate built since 1401 to 1424 and depict the picture of the New Testament. East gate were created in the period from 1425 to 1452 and are best known. They are divided into 10 gilt panels and depict biblical stories. This creation was highly appreciated by Ghiberti and Michelangelo called them the "Gates of Paradise". At present, the panel of the "Gates of Paradise" are replaced by copies and the original panels are in the Museum of the Duomo.. In addition to the gates of the Baptistery is also worthy of attention his ceiling thirteenth century Byzantine mosaic depicting a picture of the Last Judgment with the figure of Christ in the center. In addition to the baptistry is the tomb of John the Twenty- Third anti-pope ..
Palazzo Vecchio - one of Florence's most famous buildings , is located in Piazza della Signoria. Construction of this government building was begun in 1295 under the leadership of Arnolfo di Cambio - the creator of Florence Cathedral, pledged a few years earlier. Initially called the Palazzo Vecchio Palazzo Priori den , as it were going priors , - the head of the merchant and artisan guilds, possessed in those days immense political power and influence. In the fifteenth century, the building became known as the Palazzo della Signoria , thereby giving the name and the square in front of the palace. Then here the seat of government of the Florentine republic - Signoria .. In 1540, when the palace became the official residence of the Duke de Medici , it was renamed the Palazzo Ducale. But in 1565 , the Duke moved his residence to the Palazzo Pitti , and his former palace was renamed Palazzo Vecchio, which means - the Old Palace. Today, despite the fact that a large part of the palace is a museum , Palazzo Vecchio is still the seat of the municipal government of Florence.
Another landmark , located in Piazza della Signoria is the Loggia Lanzi. It was built in the period from 1376 by 1382 under the leadership of Benci di Cioni and Simone di Francesco Talenti and originally known as the Loggia della Signoria. There were public meetings , receptions and other official events of the Florentine republic .. In the sixteenth century, the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo de 'Medici first , showing their contempt for any republican tradition, placed in the loggia of his mercenaries mercenaries (abbreviated " Lanzi " ), so it was called the Loggia Lanzi. Later turned into a loggia balcony with representatives of the Medici family could watch everything going on in the square and in. On the roof of the lodge was a garden , which , unfortunately, has not survived , and later, on the orders of Kazim First it was decorated with sculptures .. Currently Lanzi Loggia is a museum in the open air , where the exposition of sculptures of ancient heroes of famous Italian artists. Among the article highlights the " Perseus with the head of Medusa " by Benvenuto Cellini , "The Rape of the Sabine Women " and " Hercules and the Centaur " by Giambologna , "The Rape of Polyxena " by Pio Fedi , the Roman copy of Greek sculpture " Menelaus with the body of Patroclus ," as well as several antique . Most of the sculptures in the Loggia - just a copy , with the exception of " Perseus ". The originals can be seen in the nearby Uffizi Gallery and the Palace of the Bargello ..
Ponte Vecchio - the most famous and oldest bridge in Florence , which has preserved its original appearance. The bridge in its present form was built in 1345 by architect Neri di Fioravanti instead of the old wooden bridge that crosses the river Arno in this place since Roman times. A distinctive feature of the Ponte Vecchio is the location of houses along the bridge on either side. In the center of the bridge spans a number of buildings is interrupted and goes into the open air , where you can admire the river and the other bridges of the city.. Buildings stretches over the Vasari Corridor , named after the architect who created it specifically for Cosimo I may have to first pass of the Palazzo Vecchio to Palazzo Pitti, because in those days on the bridge located shops and butchers from the bridge a strong stench emanated. Along the corridor is a series of small round windows of which, according to legend, the ruler could overhear what they say ordinary people at the bottom of the bridge. Since the sixteenth century shops on the bridge were replaced by jewelry stores and shops. Therefore, it also became known as " Golden Bridge". Before the Second World War, during the reign of Mussolini, Hitler specifically for the arrival of the inside of the Vasari Corridor in the central part of the observation deck was made with large rectangular windows , which have survived to the present day..
Pitti Palace - one of the most important sights of Florence and the largest of the existing Florentine palace , located in the eponymous square. In the fifteenth century, it was built by the architect Brunelleschi for a Florentine merchant Luca Pitti. During its long history the Palazzo Pitti changed hands several times and rebuilt. Since the sixteenth century, the building served as the residence of the Medici grand dukes , then the dynasty of the Dukes of Lorraine and, finally, the Italian royal family.. Today it is one of the largest museum complexes in Florence. Here is the Palatine Gallery, where you can see paintings by Titian , Raphael , Tintoretto , Caravaggio , Botticelli , Filippo Lippi, Velázquez, Van Dyck and Rubens. The Gallery of Modern Art is kept a remarkable collection of works by Italian artists of the nineteenth -and twentieth- century. In addition to the Palace Museum silver Porcelain Museum , the Museum of Costume Gallery and coaches , which shows the largest in Italy collection of clothes of different eras.. Palazzo Pitti is also famous for the adjacent Boboli Gardens - a beautiful example of landscape art of the Renaissance.
Porta Romana is an ancient gate, which had been part of the city wall , which was enclosed in the fourteenth century Florence. After they took the road leading to Rome. It used to be the main entrance to the city. They were built in 1326. Arch above the gate is decorated with ancient fresco of the Madonna and Child with Saints , made in a traditional Florentine style.. In Roman Gate area stretches Porta Romana, which is accessed through the southern entrance to the Boboli Gardens. In the old days at this place were peasant fair grooms and brides. Today, the square in the evenings going to the residents of the city to have fun. It hosts concerts buskers and street performers entertain the audience , and sell all kinds of things , and also sell sweets and fruits..
At the top of a hill called Monte alle Croci and is the highest point of the basilica in Florence San Miniato al Monte , the monastery , the Palace of Bishops and Memorial Cemetery. Basilica di San Miniato al Monte is one of the finest examples of Romanesque architecture not only in Tuscany but also in Italy.. It was named in honor of St. Miniato Florence. According to legend, Miniato first was rich, callous and wasteful , but then changed his mind and went to the cave where he lived until the time when the emperor Decius decided to betray the holy martyr's death. Wild animals abandoned Miniato break into pieces, and fire, which tried to burn the saint, went out , and then the saint was beheaded. After the execution of the martyr raised his head and went home to die in a cave. Later , about the fourth century , there was erected a chapel, and in 1018 Bishop Hildebrand decided to erect a church on the site , which has long been considered the most beautiful in the city.. Near the church of San Miniato al Monte is a magnificent monastery. For centuries, the monastery complex was turned into a fortress , then to the hospital and shelter , but in 1924 he again became a monastery and was radically rebuilt. In one of the bastions of the monastery complex is a monumental cemetery - " Saints Cemetery Gates " , founded in 1848. Here were buried such luminaries of Italian culture and history as Carlo Collodi - author of Tales of Pinnokkio , artists Pietro Annigoni and Ottone rose, writers Luigi Ugolini , Giovanni Papini and Vasco Pratolino , sculptor Libero Andreotti , producer Mario Cecchi Gori , and his wife, Valeria. In addition there are many well-known family of resting , of which Vespucci and Sapiea known fact that helped to study the future of the then - Pope John Paul II ..
Piazzale Michelangelo is the most famous scenic viewpoint of Florence , where you can enjoy a panoramic view of the city. It was established in 1869 by the architect Giuseppe Poggi on a hill , located just south of the historic center.. Panorama view from the square, embraces the heart of Florence - the fortress of Forte Belvedere to the church of Santa Croce, including embankments along the River Arno and a series of Florentine bridges in the first place - the famous Ponte Vecchio. Against this background, stand out of the building of the cathedral Santa Maria del Fiore , the Palazzo Vecchio , the Palace of the Bargello and the octagonal bell tower of the Abbey of Florence , as well as see the hills to the north of the city , which stretched Fiesole and Settignano.. In the center of the square is a copy of the famous statue of " David" by Michelangelo , and his foot on the perimeter housed four more copies of famous sculptures of the artist - an allegory of the seasons of the Medici Chapel in the church of San Lorenzo..
At the foot of Piazzale Michelangelo is still one of its attraction - nice balcony, created by the architect Giuseppe Poggi area in the neoclassical style , which was to house a museum with works by Michelangelo. But the building is a museum did not become. Today it houses the famous panoramic restaurant where visitors can admire the city of Florence and at the same time enjoy all the pleasures of Italian cuisine..
The National Central Library of Florence is one of the two national libraries in Italy , along with the National Central Library of Rome. This is where you can find rare books and valuable manuscripts. Since 1870, the library collects copies of all Italian publications.. The library was founded in 1714 when the famous Italian scientist Antonio Malyabechi bequeathed his collection of books, which covered about 30,000 volumes, the city of Florence.. Originally known as the Library Maliabechi , it was opened to the public in 1747. In 1861 , the library was merged with other libraries - Palatine Library , and in 1885 it was renamed the National Central Library of Florence.. Since 1935 the book collections were housed in a building designed by Cesare Batstsani and located along the River Arno. Before that, they were placed in the premises belonging to the Uffizi Gallery ..
Football stadium " Artemio Franchi" - one of the most important architectural works of the twentieth century in the city. It opened its doors to visitors in 1931 and is able to accommodate more than 47,000 people. Stadium architect Pier Luigi Nervi is known for Nervi hall at the Vatican. Originally called the Comunale stadium , which means "people " , but in 1991 it was renamed and now bears the name of the former President of the Italian Football Federation and the former UEFA president Artemio Franchi. Especially for the FIFA World Cup 1990 stadium was reconstructed. He was originally a multi-functional, but during the renovation of the stadium have been removed treadmills, and now it is used exclusively for football matches .. Currently Football Stadium " Artemio Franchi" is the home stadium of football club "Fiorentina" ..
Freedom Square is located in the north of the historic center of Florence. She was defeated in the nineteenth century by the architect Giuseppe Poggi and the area was originally called Camillo Cavour. In 1930 it was renamed the area Costanzo Ciano , and in 1944 - in the area Muti. Its present name - the area of Freedom, she received in 1945.. The main attraction of the area is the Arc de Triomphe. It was erected in 1738 by the architect Jean - Nicolas Jadot after coming on pristol in Florence one of the greatest dynasties in the history of Europe - Lorraine after the death of the last member of the Medici family. In the design of the arch and the creation of statues participated famous Florentine painters and sculptors. To decorate the Arc de Triomphe was used a series of bas-reliefs with inscriptions in Latin and dedicated the triumph of Lorraine , and the coat of arms with an eagle , a traditional symbol of the dynasty. On the inside of the arch placed a plaque , dated 11 November 1916 and dedicated to King Vittorio Emanuele Third , promote the unification of Italy, which has become a symbol of a new type of ruler in contrast to the last form of government is built on the dictatorship..
Basilica of San Lorenzo - one of the oldest churches in the city. It was built three hundred and ninety-third year on the orders of the Archbishop of Milan's San Ambrogio in honor of St. Lawrence and the first archbishop of Florence Saint Zenobius. The relics of Saint Zenobius for three centuries from the fourth to the seventh century were the walls of the Basilica , and that's when San Lorenzo was the Florence Cathedral. In the eleventh century the church was reconstructed in the Romanesque style. In the fifteenth century, the basilica was again rebuilt by the famous architect Brunelleschi commissioned by Cosimo de 'Medici , bringing to the basilica was added Old Sacristy. Later on the project by Michelangelo on the other side of the transept was added to the New Sacristy of the tomb of Lorenzo and Giuliano de 'Medici, as well as built Laurentian Library. In the seventeenth century the church was attached chapel princes with a large dome .. An interesting fact is that the facade of the church of San Lorenzo and has not been renewed. According to historians , the cause of unfinished construction work was disagreement between Pope Leo the Tenth Medici and Michelangelo relatively facade cladding .. The main value of the Basilica of San Lorenzo de 'Medici is a cappella , which are sarcophagi , including almost all of the Medici family - the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Special attention is given room Laurentian Library , which was built in 1524 on the south side of the Basilica of San Lorenzo project Michelangelo, who was also the author of some interior parts library - a monumental staircase , windows and benches in the reading room. Laurentian Library was opened in 1571. The basis of her collection with the collection of Cosimo de 'Medici the Elder, which is considerably enriched through the First Lorenzo de' Medici. It is in honor of Lorenzo library got its name. Today, the collection of the Laurentian has about 150,000 volumes , about 11,000 manuscripts and more than two thousand papyri ..
Palazzo Medici Riccardi - is a noble palace of the Medici family , built by the architect Michelozzo di Bartolomeo commissioned by Cosimo the Elder in 1444. This famous landmark in Florence is located one block from the Piazza del Duomo .. Palazzo Medici is the first example of secular buildings of the early Renaissance Florence. The building has the shape of a regular rectangle , inside which is a courtyard surrounded by arcades , which is planted with lemon trees. Modeled on the Palazzo Medici Riccardi were subsequently built many other structures , and its form is, after all , has become familiar among the palaces of the Renaissance in Italy.. According to the plan the customer first floor of the palace , lined with rough rustication and resembles a fortress wall , to symbolize the power of the inviolability of the Medici. In the rooms of the first floor were the stables, servants room , kitchen. On the second and third floors , lined with polished stones were located apartments owners and representative areas. In 1517, an open loggia on the south- eastern side of the palace was stopped up with bricks , and immured window arches were cut with tambourines , which is credited with the creation of Michelangelo.. The most famous room Medici Riccardi Palace - Chapel of the Magi , created by the architect Michelozzo. The main decoration of the chapel - fresco of Benozzo Gozzoli " Procession of the Magi to Bethlehem ," which depicts the image of the Magi owners of the castle.. Today, the palace is situated in the premises of the city Prefecture. On certain days in the palace you can visit the Chapel of the Magi , which is famous for its stunning frescoes..