Tallinn City Museum is located in one of the most famous buildings in the Old City - a rich merchant's house, which at one time belonged to the city mgr. City Museum is located here since the sixties of the twentieth century. His exposition is devoted to the history and culture of Tallinn and covers the period from the thirteenth century to the present day. Here are the meeting of ceramics, glass and crystal, textiles, precious metals, furniture, weapons and much more. Most modern visual and sound effects immerse visitors in the atmosphere of different historical epochs. On the first floor - the history of the Old Tallinn, which has long been surrounded by walls. A special place in the museum devoted to the sea theme. There were a lot of exhibits related to seafaring and fishing. Because the sea was the most important item of urban incomes until the twentieth century. Also in the museum with models of typical merchant houses, some - with the interior. The second floor is devoted to the Soviet occupation of Estonia and the fight for independence. Besides the permanent exhibition at the museum and temporary exhibitions are held. In 2003, the Tallinn City Museum was nominated for the European Museum Forum.
The Town Hall Square is the heart of Old Town of Tallinn. Here begins the most sightseeing tours. In the Middle Ages was located here market were fair and jousting tournaments, echoed city ordinances, arranged celebrations and penalty. Today, Town Hall Square is the venue for concerts and celebrations. Here are celebrated "Old Town Days" - a sort of medieval carnival. These days revived the ancient traditions such as holiday parades, jousting tournaments, competitions in "shooting parrot" and Election Count of May, and the streets and courtyards of the Old Town are filled with music, dancing, fairs, theater performances and exhibitions. In winter Town Hall Square is transformed into a magical Christmas market. Here, according to tradition, preserved from 1441, set a huge Christmas tree. The Town Hall Square is surrounded with ancient colored houses. In the center is built into the stone slab depicting the wind rose. Argued that if from this point of view five spiers of the Old Town : the spire of the Cathedral, the church spire of St. Olaf, the bell tower of the church of the Holy Spirit, the top of St. Nicholas Church and the main spire of the Tallinn's Town Hall crowning, and make a wish, it will surely come. The main attractions of the area are the Town Hall and Town Hall Pharmacy - the oldest working pharmacy in Northern Europe. It is believed that in this drugstore and was once invented by famous Estonian marzipan as an effective remedy for headaches.
City Hall - a medieval monument of architecture and the most famous landmark of the Old Town. In the Middle Ages in its walls met the City Council, consisting of local nobles, who solved all problems of life in the city - the size of the tax rates and to clothing that could be worn by representatives of various classes. First is the structure mentioned in written sources in 1322. While Hall was a one-story building made of limestone. By the end of the fourteenth century, in connection with the increasing importance of the city in the Hanseatic League, the town hall began to expand. Was added arcade lined ceremonial reception rooms, as well as built the famous tower. In 1530, at the top of the main spire of the tower was installed figure urban Guard - Old Thomas, who became a symbol of Tallinn. The Town Hall is the oldest cellar. Previously, it was used as a wine cellar. Space located above it - trading floor, in the old account books also called wine cellar, although it probably was used as a place for the storage of more valuable goods. Burgher room or lobby - the most luxurious room of City Hall. In the Middle Ages, held celebrations and festivals, as well as the performances of itinerant actors and musicians. Nowadays, there are concerts and receptions. Burgher room wall decorated with replicas of tapestries made in 1547, which depict scenes of King Solomon. Original tapestries are stored in Tallinn City Museum, and are beautiful examples of textile art in Estonia Renaissance. The most important room of the Tallinn Town Hall - Hall Magistrate. There was going to the city council, or city government. As a magistrate and owned the highest judicial authority, this room is also used as a courtroom. Today, Hall is mainly used for concerts and receptions official delegations - guests. In addition, it is a popular place for weddings. In the period from July to August Town Hall is open to the public. Here, visitors can walk down to the basement to get acquainted with the exhibits presented there, to visit the former secret room, the walls of which today is located a small museum of torture, reflecting medieval mores. Those interested can also climb the tower of City Hall. From her balcony, located at an altitude of 34 meters, offers a wonderful view of the city hall and the city.
Viru Gate is part of the fortress wall that surrounded the medieval Tallinn. They served as the main entrance to the city on the east side. This is one of two gates of the fortress wall, extant. Viru Gate is also called the "gate time" because through them you get from a modern city in the Middle Ages. These two round towers, built in the fourteenth century, defended the approaches to the drawbridge that spanned the moat in front of the ramparts. The existing towers at the turn of the nineteenth - twentieth centuries rigged third. Together they are called Viru Gate. Then the hill in front of them, a former part of the bastion Viru Gates, turned into a park, planted many ornamental trees and shrubs. Hill became known as " Hill for kisses." On the hill are two sculptures Tauno Kangro : "Mig to kiss" and " Moment after the kiss." They say that if the kiss in this place, the pair secured a long and happy family life. Currently Viru Gate - one of the symbols of Tallinn Old Town, one of the most beautiful places in the city and a meeting place for townspeople. Through them you can get on Viru Street with its many shops, restaurants and cafes, where close to the Town Hall Square.
Liberty Square - a very important part of the heritage of Tallinn, symbolizing national and civic pride. It is the modern center of Tallinn, where you can relax and have a snack in the exquisite cafes, art galleries and shops or just sit on the comfortable benches surrounded by flowers. Being located in the city center, close to the old town, the area is a popular meeting place for locals and leisure. Regularly hosts various urban activities from free concerts to street performances and exhibitions. On the night of January 1 is rapidly youth celebrates New Year. At different times the area carried different names : Hay Market, Peter's Square, Victory Square. Its modern shape area acquired in 2009. In the same year it graced the Victory Monument in the Independence War, which took place from 1918 to 1920. The monument is a concrete column coated glass panels with LED backlight on which the Cross of Liberty - Estonia's first award, established in 1919 to honor distinguished themselves in the War of Independence of Estonia from 1918 to 1920. Near the monument there are steps leading up to Toompea Castle and the park on the hill Harjumägi. Under the glass panel in the northwest corner of the square are the remains of the tower Harju, which stood on this site in the Middle Ages. On the opposite side is the church of St. John of the nineteenth century. In buildings, facades facing the square, located showrooms, including the Municipal Gallery of Modern Art. Near the square is an underground passage leading to the Russian theater and city hall building of Fancy red and black brick, as well as street fashion boutiques and salons - Rozinkrantsi. In the transition is entertaining and educational center, which includes a 4- D movie theater, restaurant and gallery.
Permanent exhibition opened in 2003 Occupation Museum tells the history of Estonia from 1939 to 1991. The term "occupiers" here at the Museum of Occupations, applies equally to both the Soviet Union and Germany. Collected and exhibited in the museum exhibits, documents, video, audio and photos to tell the public about the occupation period. The largest section of the Museum is dedicated to the Soviet occupation of Estonia, which represented a large number of rarities - from the rusty door of the prison of the NKVD to fashion once radios " Spidola."
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral - the largest and one of the most beautiful temples in Tallinn, Estonia, the main Orthodox church, an outstanding monument of architecture of the period of history when Estonia was part of the Russian Empire. It was erected in the late nineteenth century in memory of the miraculous salvation of the royal family in the train accident on Oct. 17, 1888. Then a few of the train route from the Crimea to St. Petersburg derailed. The roof of the car, which drove the royal family began to fall. Alexander III held her shoulders up until all were inside, including the servants, not to get out. Cathedral was built in honor of St. Alexander Nevsky, as he is the patron saint of the Russian Tsar. Stately, ornate cathedral is in the neo- Russian style. Author of the project - Mikhail Preobrazhensky. The temple is decorated with five domes. If you look at it from a height, we can see that they form a cross. Dark dome visible from many points in the city, and the sound of bells, published ringers, heard throughout Tallinn. The towers of the cathedral is the most powerful in Tallinn ensemble of church bells. It consists of 11 bells, including the largest in Tallinn bell weighing 15 tons. Log Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is decorated with gilded ornament of the Virgin Mary. Slightly higher on the pediment of the temple laid ornament depicting Jesus Christ and two Archangels - Michael and Gabriel. The interior of the cathedral is decorated with mosaics and icons. The fate of the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is not just hanging by a thread. In 1924, after receipt of Estonia 's independence from Russia in the wake of the national- patriotic movements, the authorities planned to demolish the temple, but he managed to defend. And in the early sixties wanted to rebuild the Cathedral of the planetarium, but managed to save the shrine at this time. At that time there began his career Estonian Ridiger Bishop Alexis, who later became the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II. According to some information, he made every effort to save the Cathedral.
Cathedral of the Virgin Mary is more known as the Dome Cathedral - the oldest church in Tallinn. Construction of the main Lutheran church in Estonia, which was built on the site of a wooden church was started in the first half of the thirteenth century. For centuries the church rebuilt and rebuilt gradually formed its modern appearance. Over 800 years of history the cathedral survived the war, looting and epidemics, but the most significant damage to the building caused a terrible fire in 1684. Then the temple survived only walls and gravestones. Today Dome Cathedral is famous for its organ concerts. The interior of the cathedral attract the attention of noble coats of arms decorating the walls of the temple, as well as tombstones medieval nobility thirteenth - nineteenth centuries, set in the floor. Among those buried in the Cathedral of celebrities - famous Swedish leader Pontus de la Gardie and his wife Sophia Gullenhelm - the daughter of the King of Sweden Johanna Third, a favorite of Catherine the Great - Admiral Samuel Greig, as well as the famous explorer who led the first Russian world expedition - Adam Johann von Krusenstern. Just before the entrance to the temple is another tombstone - a nobleman Otto Johann von Tuva. When life Honourable Otto gained notoriety Tallinn Don Juan. He loved feasts with delicious food and wines, and even in the company of beautiful women. In 1696, before the passing of the Tallinn Lovelace repented of his dissolute life and asked to be buried in front of the main entrance to the Church of the Virgin Mary. Then every visitor will trample his sinful dust, and he will find forgiveness over. However, Estonians say, that the true intention of Otto was not atonement. Townspeople joke that wicked after death Otto examines legs pretty parishioners trampling his tombstone.
Toompea Castle is one of the oldest and largest architectural complexes Estonia. Medieval fortress was built in the period from the thirteenth to the fourteenth century on the steep slope of the eponymous Toompea, at an altitude of 50 meters above sea level. Near this hill town sprang. According to legend Toompea hill - a giant tombstone on the grave of the Scandinavian epic hero, King of ancient Estonians - Kaleva. Mourning the death of her husband, the powerful Linda brought to the burial place of Kaleva huge stones. Gradually they accumulated so much that formed the hill. One of the stones Linda was not able to convey to the grave : no strength in it, she sat down and cried. Linda tears gathered in a large lake - Ülemiste, which you can see here and in our days. Southwest corner of Toompea Castle crowns the 48- meter high watchtower "Long Hermann", which is a symbol of not only the city but also the entire state. Its steeple fluttering national flag of Estonia. Tower owes its name to the hero of medieval legends Lange Herrmann, which translated from German means "The Long Warrior" or " Leader." While similarly named the most powerful and well-fortified towers. "Long Hermann" consists of ten floors. At the bottom of the tower was a prison almost 15 meters deep, where, according to legend, cited executions. Convicted throwing here in the pit with the lions. At the upper levels of the tower housed the living rooms and rooms for shooting. Go from one level to another could only by a ladder, and if the enemy broke through to the first floor, the soldiers removed the ladder and found themselves virtually inaccessible. Now on top of the tower is a narrow stone staircase consisting of 215 steps. For several centuries, the building of Toompea Castle was one of the main symbols of the ruling power in the country. Nowadays, the castle sits the Parliament of the Republic of Estonia.
Tallinn city wall, which includes walls and towers - this medieval protective structure that surrounded the medieval Tallinn, dating from the thirteenth century. The first stone wall around the city began to build in 1265 by decree of the Danish Queen Margaret. In 1310 a new Danish vicar Johannes Cannes engaged improving the city's fortifications. That wall Cannes, though thoroughly unfinished, survives to this day. Initially, the city wall had a height of more than six meters, a thickness greater than two meters, 14 towers and was surrounded by a moat. In the fifteenth century the walls were completed and in some places reached fifteen meters. By 1530 the town walls were 27 towers, and its length is more than two thousand meters. With the development of artillery towers overbuild, they staged gun loopholes. The highest tower of the fortress wall is Kuster tower, whose height reaches thirty meters, and the most massive - a four-storey complex at Fat Margaret Sea Gate. Has survived one thousand eight hundred and fifty meters of the wall, 20 watchtowers, two intermediate portions of the two gates and the front gate.
St. Olaf's Church - one of the most remarkable buildings of Tallinn. It was built on the site of the trading area of the Scandinavian merchants. The earliest mention of the church relate to 1267. According to legend, many centuries ago, the city decided to erect know in Tallinn large church with a tall steeple to be seen foreign merchants, floating on the sea in ships. For such a simple matter agreed to take on an unknown architect, but for his work, he requested 10 barrels of gold. For city officials, this price was too high, and then the master put forward an unusual condition - if citizens know his name, he will not take a penny for his work. When the construction of the temple was nearing completion, the townspeople had sent to the house of the architect spy. Waiting for the night, he crept up to the window and overheard words of a lullaby, sung by the master 's wife to her child : "Sleep, my baby, sleep. Tomorrow Olev dad come home with ten barrels full of gold." And when a mysterious wizard has already established a cross on top of the spire, the townspeople called to him : " Olev ! A cross - then you have banked ". Hearing this, Olev lost his balance and fell down, hit the ground. At the same moment his body stiffened and his mouth frog jumped out and snake crawled. Citizens believe that Olev fell victim to the evil spirit, because without the participation of the dark forces it is impossible to build such a grand structure. The church was consecrated in honor of the Norwegian king Olaf canonized Second approving Christianity in Norway, and people call it the temple of St. Olaf - named master Olev. In the fifteenth - sixteenth centuries the church was thoroughly rebuilt. With a height of 159 meters, it has long been the tallest building in Europe. High church steeple served as a landmark for sailors and merchants attracted to the city. However, due to such a height Olaf church has often been the target of lightning that hit it 8 times, because of the communication which she burned three times. As a result, in 1625 the church spire decided to shorten to 123 meters. Today, the church of St. Olaf enters dvadtsadku the highest temple in the world and is the second tallest structure after the Tallinn TV Tower Tallinn. To render homage to the ancient church, Tallinn authorities adopted an ordinance prohibiting building in downtown skyscrapers above the spire of St. Olaf. The chief ornament of the Church of St. Olaf are Gothic arches stellate in which the intersection of frame creates a sophisticated star-shaped arches geometric pattern. Also worthy of special attention ancient sculptural relief of Saint Olaf, placed behind the altar, and the chapel of the Virgin Mary, attached in the period from 1513 to 1523 on the east side of the church. On the outer wall of the chapel of Mary established symbolic cooker - Cenotaph to commemorate the construction of the chapel initiator Hans Pavels dated 1516 year. On the cenotaph in stone carved images of eight scenes of suffering of Jesus Christ and biblical wisdom carved on the old German language: "The fact that I have given, stay with me. What I speak, lost to me. Let no one thinks too highly of themselves, for human life is elusive, like smoke. " Concluding the tour of the church of St. Olaf, you can climb the spiral staircase, consisting of three hundred stairs to the observation deck and enjoy the view of Tallinn with bird's-eye view.
"Three Sisters" - is one of three houses. Once they belonged to a rich merchant who built it for his three daughters. In an attempt to give their daughters in marriage, in due course he was "the eldest daughter of the house" made big beautiful doors and windows to attract potential suitors, in "the house of the older daughter" - smaller, and "house younger" - generally left without doors. Now this building is the most luxurious hotel of the city. Inside is fully preserved medieval decor and made gentle author repair. Similar houses in Tallinn are located at 38 Lai Kooning and 1, respectively, and are called "Three Brothers" and "Father and Son".
Tower "Fat Margaret" is part of the Great Coastal Gate - one of the two gates of the city wall that surrounded the medieval Tallinn, extant. Great Coastal Gate was built in the fourteenth century in conjunction with the city wall on the orders of the Danish Queen Margaret. In the sixteenth century, during the reconstruction of the gate was attached to them turret with 155 loopholes. For its impressive size - 25 meters in diameter and 20 meters in height - it was called "Fat Margaret". Although some argue that the tower was named after one of its most formidable guns, and others felt the tower was nicknamed by the name once worked there as a chef. There is a legend that in the Fat Margaret was immured people. In the Middle Ages it was the custom in the event that construction is not specified, human sacrifice. Great Coastal Gate and Tower "Fat Margaret" defended the city against pirate raids and contributed to the prosperity of the shopping haven, attracting the attention of overseas merchants. Eventually lost its defensive significance, turret, was used as a barracks, then as a warehouse, and since the thirties of the nineteenth century it was a prison walls. In 1917, "Fat Margaret" was burned. And in 1981 in the restored tower opened a branch of the Estonian Maritime Museum. His exhibition introduces visitors to the history of navigation and fishing in Estonia. The four floors of the museum are antique diving and fishing gear, a rich collection of antique ship models, navigational instruments, models of the most important Baltic lighthouses, the helm of the English steamer "Auk", which sank during the First World War, the bridge of the sample in 1950, barrels, ropes, anchors and much more. On the roof of the tower "Fat Margaret" is an observation deck, which offers stunning views of the street the Tall, and St. Olav's Church Tallinn port.
Monument battleship "Mermaid" is dedicated to one hundred and seventy seven Russian Imperial Navy sailors who died on the battleship "Mermaid" sunken September 7, 1893 at 25 kilometers from Helsinki. Armored boat returning from exercises in Kronstadt. According to the order, she had to go down with the ship " cloud." Almost immediately after their departure from the port of Tallinn, the sea broke the 9 gale. "Cloud" has moved forward, and the battleship on the route to the port has not reached. Two days later, on the shore were found the remains of lifeboats and other items of "Mermaid", as well as the corpse sailor, who served on the ship. Search and rescue operation, which began on September 10, yielded no results. The ship was discovered only 40 years later. The death of the Russian battleship "Mermaid" to death of the ferry "Estonia" September 28, 1994 was the largest maritime disaster in the Baltic. Battleship monument was unveiled and consecrated September 7, 1902, the ninth anniversary of the sinking of the battleship. The monument is located on the coastal boulevard near Kadriorg. The lower part of the monument - a pedestal of gray granite symbolizes the bow of the ship, forward waves of the sea, made of pink granite. Rises above the pedestal of granite rock on top of which is a bronze figure of an angel with a gilded cross in his raised right hand. The prototype for the angel sculpture served as maid sculptor, 17 - year-old Julian Roots. The site is a stone staircase pedestal, in front of which the rock is a bronze bas-relief depicting a battleship in a stormy sea. From the sea on a rock inscribed with the names of twelve officers killed on the "Mermaid." The area around the monument is surrounded by stone pillars connected by chains, which are mounted on metal plaques with the names of one hundred and sixty-five sailors dead armadillo.
Pirita is one of the most prestigious in the city. This seafront located about five kilometers north-east from the city center, known primarily majestic ruins of the monastery of St. Mary of the Order of St. Bridget, and sailing center, where in 1980 the Olympic Games were held. Today Pirita with its beautiful sandy beach and pine groves, like the park, as well as a picturesque river valley is the most favored destination of Tallinn leisure facilities including active.
One of the most interesting and popular attractions of Tallinn is Maarjamäe Palace - the former summer residence of Count Anatoly Orlov -Davydov. In 1873, he bought a plot of land where previously there was a factory for the production of sugar, and built a sort of medieval castle. Castle got its name by name the adjacent park Maaryamyagi, named in honor of the wife and daughter ( both named Maria ). In the twenties of the last century Orlov-Davydov emigrated to France and settled in the estate ambassador of Holland, and in 1932 there was placed a restaurant - cabaret. With the advent of Soviet power were located here barracks, and after the Second World War - the communal apartments. Since 1975, it houses a branch of the Estonian History Museum. The main building is a historical museum Pikk Street in the Old Town of Tallinn. Permanent exhibition is located in the castle museum tells about the birth and development of Estonia, during the occupation and the restoration of its independence. Here are the objects of everyday life, local culture and art from the nineteenth century. In the museum you can see the interior looked like a merchant, landowner, peasant, worker Krenholm manufacture, regular class rural school, office of the first President of Estonia, and much more. In the museum adjacent to the park, there are collected from all over Estonia monuments activists of the Communist movement.
Convent of the Order of St. Bridget was the largest monastery building in Livonia. According to legend, long ago besieged Tallinn one Lithuanian prince. It seemed that nothing could save the city, but once the town's rulers came an honorable man, and said that was his dream of St. Bridget and bequeathed save Tallinn if townspeople built a monastery dedicated to her. Magistrate members vowed to fulfill the will of their patron saint, and immediately sent a procession of nuns of the Monastery of St. Clare to the place indicated in the vision. Lithuanians noticed nuns and capture them, but they had seen the holy Birgitta son Grand Duke of Lithuania, a young Udo saw Hedwig and the novice, struck by her beauty, not only persuaded his father to release all the nuns, but the siege of the city. The enemy withdrew, and the city fulfilled this vow - built a monastery in honor of St. Birgitta. It was founded in 1407 with the support of three wealthy merchants of Tallinn and belonged to the Order of St. Bridget of Sweden. Order received its name in honor of Brigitte Gudmarsson Swede, who was canonized in 1391. Bridget was born about 1303 and came from a royal family. in 1346, she founded an order of nuns, who, during his prosperity consisted of 74 Monastery. Originally Monastery in St. Bridget was a wooden building. In 1417 instead began to build a stone building, which was consecrated in 1436. The originality of this convent was that that it was allowed to live and worship lead male priests. The building facilities for men and women separately located and separated the two yards. In the northern part of the monastery of St. Bridget nuns lived, and in the south - the monks. During services, the monks were directly in the church, and the nuns were placed on a special balcony. Monastery and did not last two centuries. In 1577, during the Livonian War in the late siege of Tallinn Russian troops building was destroyed. In the ruins of the monastery peasants lived a long time. In the seventeenth century was arranged near the ruins of the cemetery where the funeral of local farmers. To the present day from the entire monastic complex, leaving only the western facade of the abbey church and its side walls, cellars and cemetery. The ruins of the monastery - a unique attraction in Tallinn and real magnet for tourists. They conduct open-air concerts, and since 2005 in this historic place on the Coast is the one of the most unique musical events in Northern Europe - Brigitte Festival, during which play classical and sacred music and dance classical dance.